Anti-immigration sentiments have been extensively studied in recent years. Empirical studies showed that the out-group size together with the general economic condition of the host country determines the extent and the intensity of the anti-immigrant perception. While nearly all studies concluded that men and women differ in their perceptions, there is no explanation for this behaviour. Gender differences were the main focus of this paper, and we looked at two related issues. First, in our analysis, we sought a more detailed explanation of the particular reasons that foster this negat ive perception. Secondly, while the majority of studies focused exclusively on perceptions of the native population, we included the perceptions of the non-native populations separately and looked at the differences among three groups, with gender being the primary focus both between and within groups. We found that both gender and immigration history mediates the threat perception in Luxembourg.